PIP: The authors survey the migration history of the territories that make up modern Yugoslavia. The discussion includes migration patterns into and out of Yugoslavia and their socioeconomic and political determinants. The authors analyze reasons for migration to specific countries and conclude with a discussion of current Yugoslav migration policy. (SUMMARY IN ENG)
This book began as a special issue of the journal Anthropology of East Europe Review. Most of the contributors to that issue have revised their chapters for this collection, and new chapters have been added, including one on the recent war in Kosovo. Essays range across all of former Yugoslavia, emphasizing the variability and diversity of ethnic relations throughout its history.
This article offers some ways of thinking about how to make sense of the complicated post-war moment through the case of Yugoslavia, a country that has gone down in history as having defeated the Nazis, and whose immediate post-war story is largely forgotten because it did not fit into the narratives that historians had crafted of the new end of war and the peace that followed. It introduces both the moral and historical complications of studying this period and suggests some new ways to understand the aftermath of World War II.
The complexities of the battle lines in post-war Yugoslavia, along with the disparate motives of different groups (and the many different individuals within those groups), have made it easy for western audiences to throw their hands up and say that Balkan history is just too complicated, or too violent, or too foreign to really understand. But to quote a recent tweet by the historian Elidor Mëhilli:
He died at the age of 88. His funeral was the largest state funeral in history until the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005. Tito was interred in a mausoleum called House of Flowers in Belgrade, which is a part of the Museum of Yugoslav History.
It has a long history, since it is one of the oldest European cities. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved in the 6th millennium BC in what now are the suburbs of Belgrade.
This decision in Belgrade's federal parliament to create a new loose union between the two republics, called simply Serbia and Montenegro, and to finally consign the name of Yugoslavia to history, shows how the legislators have bowed to reality. The real Yugoslavia perished in the 1990s, during the wars that consumed it.
Several decades before this purchase, the Library included contributions by the prominent Slovenian Bishop Friderik Baraga (1797-1868) who, as a missionary among the American Indians and a trained linguist, wrote a grammar of the Chippewa language, A theoretical and practical grammar of the Otchipwe language (Detroit, 1850). Also dating from this period are several important books on the history of South Slavic languages: Kleine serbische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1824) by Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic; Grammatik der illyrischen Sprache (Vienna, 1854) by Andrija Torkvat Brlic; Mala srpska gramatika (1850) by Duro Danicic; and Ilirska slovnica (Zagreb, 1854) by Vjekoslav Babukic.
At the beginning of this century the United States had well-established relations with the independent South Slavic countries, namely, Bulgaria and Serbia, which resulted in an exchange of official government publications, including important legal publications, records of parliaments, censuses and statistical information. Scientific institutions and universities from these countries, as well as from those which were at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (Croatia and Slovenia), established ongoing relations with the Library of Congress. After World War I and the founding of new states, these relations developed into very comprehensive exchange and acquisition programs. In the post-World War II period, the collection grew to include almost 200,000 volumes of the most outstanding works and several thousand serial titles, the richest depository of South Slavic materials in the United States. The collection is very strong in all areas of the humanities, especially literature, laws, history, and the political, economic, and cultural life of the South Slav peoples.
The turbulent history of the South Slavs has become a subject of intense interest in the United States following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the eruption of ethnic conflict, and the deployment of U.S. troops to the region. This history can be studied in the Library of Congress, whose collections contain nearly the same amount of published literature as is available in the national institutions of each of the countries of the former Yugoslavia.
In Bulgarian history, the most important works are the ongoing multivolume monograph Sbornik za narodni umotvoreniia i narodopis which has now reached 58 volumes, Izvori za bulgarskata istoriia in 20 volumes, and especially the comprehensive Bulgarian historical materials from two International Conferences on Bulgarian Studies held in 1981 and 1988 in Sofia in honor of 1300 years of the Bulgarian state.
Historiography of other South Slavic countries can be found under the collective history of Yugoslavia and also under the respective Yugoslav nationalities. In addition, all material published in Yugoslavia in the last fifty years is listed in Bibliografija Jugoslavije and in Bibliografija jugoslovenskih bibliografija, 1945-1960 (1945-1955, 1956-1960). Material published before World War II and that published by authors from Yugoslavia living abroad is catalogued by the respective nationality.
There are about 600 newly published titles on the history of Bosnia, including current material made available by its new government on The Ethnic Cleansing of Bosnia-Hercegovina (Sarajevo, 1992), as well as a recent translation (into Serbo-Croatian) of old Turkish documents published by the Oriental Institute in Sarajevo in its series Monumenta Turcica historiam Slavorum Meridionalium illustrantia.
Croatian history is represented by over a thousand titles acquired by the Library and cataloged after 1980 and by many publications from earlier periods, e.g., Znameniti i zasluzni Hrvati te pomena vrijedna lica u hrvatskoj povijesti od 925-1925 (Zagreb, 1925). Croatians living outside their state made a significant contribution in publishing the memoirs of prominent participants in Croatia's recent history and describing their history from various perspectives. Here the most important titles are Ivo Korsky, Hrvatski nacionalizam (a history of Croatia from 1918 to 1945) and V. Vranic, Branili smo drzavu, as well as the recently published memoirs of the leaders of the new Croatian state, especially, for example, Franjo Tudjman's Bespuca povijesne zbiljnosti (1989).
The history of Macedonia is available in newer studies published by the Macedonian Academy of Arts and Science and is best represented in the series of historical books by Aleksandar Matkovski. Further material on this subject can be found in general works on the history of the Bulgarians, Greeks, and Serbs, whose histories Macedonia shared for centuries.
The history of Slovenia is well represented in several hundred titles in the Library of Congress, but most important are Zgodovina slovenskego naroda, (1912-1916) by J. Gruden and its sequel Zgodovina slovenskego naroda, najnovejsa doba, (1929-1939) by J. Mal. The most recent and authoritative title on this subject is Zgodovina Slovencev, (1979) by Z. Cepic and others.
Serbian history is represented with somewhat fewer than 600 titles in the Library, but includes the very good seven-volume monograph, Istorija srpskog naroda by Dragoslav Srejovic and others. For the English reader there is the excellent work by Michael B. Petrovich, A History of Modern Serbia, 1804-1918.
In regard to the political history and economic condition of the peoples of former Yugoslavia, the Library has almost everything published in the languages of these peoples since World War II, as well as important books on these subjects in English and other West European languages. The Library also has most, although not all, of the important publications from before and after World War I, including those dealing with the creation of Yugoslavia. However, it lacks considerable material published during World War II.
Works in science and technology from South Slavic countries are mainly represented by works from various scientific institutions in Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia, as well as materials from numerous international conferences held in this part of the world. Most important are collections of works by the Bulgarian, Croatian, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Slovenian and Serbian academies of arts and science. Highlights from Special Collections The arts of the South Slavic area, because of its complicated history and culture, reflect a wide spectrum of Eastern and Western influences. The Library's collection of publications on Bulgarian and Serbian medieval monasteries and their icons is considered the largest collection outside these countries. In addition, there are voluminous works on the Western arts of Croatia and Slovenia, beautiful prints of Dubrovnik and Dalmatia, descriptions of Muslim arts, particularly architecture, as well as numerous of catalogs of important individual artists and collective exhibits.
The Geography and Map Division has a very fine collection of maps dating from the early history of the South Slav region and continuing to the present, with the most recent maps of the independent states of former Yugoslavia. The earliest map from this area is a 1541 Ptolemaic map of the Dalmatian coast.
In his excellent book, Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia, Richard West provides us with a biography, travelogue, and popular history of Yugoslavia and an analysis of the personalities and events that brought about the country's disintegration and civil war. West loves Yugoslavia and has a native's feel for local color and anecdotes. He writes so admirably that one enjoys his book even when its conclusions are questionable. This is certainly one of the most readable books ever written about Yugoslavia. 781b155fdc